Cerebellum – simply defined

The cerebellum is a part of the human brain. It is the part of the brain that that is responsible for human movement, co-ordination, motor control and sensory perception. The cerebellum is in the lower posterior part of the brain which looks almost like it is separate but still of the same unit. The cerebellum receives signals from all over the body through neural pathways to keep the mind aware of where the body is positioned and how the body is coping with its environment at any one point in time though continuously.

The cerebellum is responsible for relaying messages about posture, equilibrium, movement and fine motor skills such as writing or catching a ball. It is a very important part of the brain that keeps us aware of our surroundings and therefore alive. Voluntary movement is monitored and initialized by the cerebellum through the manipulation of fine muscle movement. Cerebellum injuries can lead to forms of paralysis in many various ways such as paraplegic, quadriplegic or partial impairment of the motor neuron pathways.

The brain is surrounded by billions of neuron though the cerebellum has the most neurons compared to any other part of the brain. When excessive alcohol abuse affects the brain it is usually the cerebellum that is affected the greatest and this is why alcohol related brain damage causes permanent slurred speech loss of balance or co-ordination. We notice this effect the most because these are the most important aspects of life that we use the largely.

Cerebral Hypoxia

Cerebral hypoxia, or hypoxic brain injury, is a serious condition in which the brain is partially private from oxygen. In the most severe cases, it leases to deep brain injury. Many people make a confusion between anoxic brain injury and hypoxic brain injury, but the two are different conditions. In anoxic brain injury, no oxygen reaches the brain. In such cases, patients are submitted to oxygen and ventilation therapies, to avoid coma and brain death.

Why is this disease developed?

Cerebral hypoxia can be caused by any type of event that leads to brain injury and a lack of oxygen in the brain. Causes can be classified as internal or external to the body. The mild forms of the disease can be caused by asthma or anemia, as well as other diseases that affect blood oxygenation and breathing. However, in most cases, this brain disease is determined by traumatic events.

Cerebral hypoxia may be caused by:

  • Pressure on the windpipe;
  • Strangulation;
  • Chocking;
  • Breathing in smoke;
  • Carbon monoxide poisoning;
  • Drowning;
  • Drug overdose;
  • Very low blood pressure;
  • Cardiac arrhythmia;
  • Diseases that prevent movement.


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Signs and symptoms

There are few signs and symptoms that may indicate the development of this condition. They include:

  • Change in attention;
  • Poor judgment;
  • No breathing;
  • Uncoordinated movement;
  • No response of the pupils of the eye to light;
  • Complete unawareness and unresponsiveness.

Treatment

Emergency treatment has to be administrated to patients suffering from brain injury. The sooner the oxygen supply is restored to the brain, the higher chances a patient has to improve his health and avoid severe damage to the brain. Treatment depends on the state of each patient. It will commonly include mechanical ventilation and oxygen, controlling the heart rate, raising blood pressure, in case it is low, as well as medication to prevent and calm seizures.

Rushing the patient to the emergency room as soon as the disease shows its first signs is a must. This may not only help him overcome the disease sooner, but it may actually save his life.

Cerebellar Stroke Syndrome

The cerebellar stroke syndrome is a serious condition in which the circulation of blood to the cerebellum is impaired. This happens due to a lesion formed on the superior cerebellar artery. Commonly, a cerebellar stroke occurs when the blood supply for the brain is interrupted. In the lack of oxygen and nutrients, loss of important functions is experienced by patients. Immediate medical assistance is required when patients suffer from cerebellar stroke.


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There are two main types of cerebellar strokes: Ischemic and Hemorrhagic.

Ischemic cerebellar stroke

This is the most common type of cerebellar stroke diagnosed in patients. The stroke can be caused by a sudden decrease in blood flow determined by a series of factors. Some of the most important such factors include the forming of a cloth that breaks off and blocks the flow, but also a tear in an artery that supplies blood to the brain.

There are a series of risk factors that can lead to the development of an cerebellar stroke. They include:

  • High blood pressure;
  • High cholesterol levels;
  • Obesity;
  • Alcohol abuse;
  • Drug abuse;
  • Atherosclerosis;
  • Metabolic syndrome;
  • Type 2 diabetes;
  • Atrial fibrillation;
  • Blood circulation problems.

There are certain lifestyle factors which can increase the risk of cerebellar stroke development. They include smoking, the lack of physical activity, as well as an unhealthy diet.

Symptoms

Preventing as much as possible a cerebellar stroke is a must. However, in case you are suffering from such a serious health problem, you need immediate medical assistance. This is why you need to be careful at all symptoms that may indicate something is wrong with your health and seek medical assistance as soon as possible.

Most common cerebellar stroke symptoms include:

  • Uncoordinated movements of the limbs;
  • Tremor;
  • Abnormal reflexes;
  • Speech problems;
  • Difficulty hearing;
  • Problems with vision and eyes;
  • Nausea and vomiting;
  • Difficulty walking;
  • Intense headache;
  • Loss of consciousness.

If you or someone else is experiencing such symptoms, you need to call an ambulance right away!

There are a series of tests that doctors will perform with the purpose to diagnose this condition. They include a CT scan, CT angiogram, MRO scan, MRA, blood tests, as well as kidney function tests and tests to check heart function. Treatment will vary from one patient to another, depending on his state of health, as well as his medical history. Rehabilitation will commonly be required for patients to improve their health.

Movement Disorders

Movement disorders actually are neurological conditions which affect movement when it comes to speed, fluency, quality and ease of movement. There are numerous movement disorders that can be found in patients. The most common such conditions are listed below.


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1. Ataxia. Ataxia probably is the most common neurological condition that affects movement. This disease actually is a condition of the cerebellum. The cerebellum is responsible with controlling coordinated movement. Consequently, patients will experience uncoordinated movements, imbalance, as well as unsteady walk.

2. Dystonia. This is another commonly diagnosed neurological condition. When this disease is developed by patients, muscles contract involuntarily, causing twisting and repetitive movements. It can involve the entire body or just one part of the patient’s body.

3. Multiple system atrophy. This condition is quite an uncommon neurological disorder, but it can affect patients. Multiple system atrophy affects many areas of the brain and the nervous system. Consequently, it can lead to ataxia, as well as to Parkinson’s disease.

4. Tardive dyskinesia. A neurological condition, tardive dyskinesia is commonly caused by long-term use of drugs that are known to be able to treat certain psychiatric conditions. This disease determines repetitive and involuntary movements.

5. Parkinson’s disease. Parkinson’s disease is a progressive neurological condition. This disease affects movement, causing shaking and muscle stiffness, as well as impaired balance.

6. Essential tremor. Essential tremor is another neurological condition that can cause involuntary shaking. Hands are commonly affected by this disease, but other parts of the patient’s body can also be.

7. Tourette syndrome. This disease is a neurological condition that affects children. It commonly is developed between childhood and teenage years. This disease commonly is associated with repetitive movements, as well as vocal sounds, which become tics.

8. Huntington’s disease. This is an inherited progressive movement condition. The neurodegenerative disease determines nerve cells in the brain to deteriorate. Uncontrolled movements, as well as emotional and health disturbances can be experienced by patients.

9. Progressive supranuclear palsy. This is a rare neurological disease. The condition causes problems with walking, as well as issues with balance and eye moment. It commonly includes numerous similar symptoms with Parkinson’s disease.

10. Wilson’s disease. It is an inherited disorder which causes excessive amounts of copper to build up in the patient’s body. Various neurological problems can be experienced by patients diagnosed with this disease.

Movement disorders can be experienced by patients at any time. These are hard to cure diseases that require a complex treatment.