The cerebellum is one of the most fascinating parts of the human brain, due to the fact that it has many functions and numerous studies have pointed out its importance in the system of the human body. The computational functions have always been under constant study, in the idea that the relative simplicity of the the anatomy of this part of the brain will be easily translated into these functions as well. However, the results provided have been rather elusive, but the finality of the research has ended in the identification of four main functionality principles.
The first principle is that of feedforward processing, which refers to the way in which the signal processing is in this part of the brain as opposed to all the others. The signals go through an input – output type of system, which means that they simply transgress the existing portions, without leaving marks or recurrences. The cases in which these occur are very rare. Divergence and convergence is the second principle. This refers to the fact that the number of the inputs received is rather modest. These signals are then taken into the network system of the small brain and are taken out at the end in the form of small number of output signals. This is also the process from which the different types of cells are initiated, as they comprise themselves in order to form new ones. This means that the mossy fiber cells are expanded into granule cells, from which the parallel fiber outputs are transformed into Purkinje cells.
Modularity is the third principle of the cerebellum. The small brain is divided into a series of numerous modules, which each have their internal processes through which they take inputs and release outputs. The module is formed out of a small cluster of neurons in the inferior olivary nucleus, strips of Purkinje cells in the cerebellar cortex and small neuron clusters in the deep cerebellar nuclei. Plasticity is the last of the principles of the small brain. It mainly refers to the strength of the synapses between various types of cells, fibers and nucleus. The fact that they can modify in strength brings out a sense of plasticity, through which the processes are alleviated. The importance of these principles is connected to the functions of the cerebellum and to the processes of the whole system.