Organization of the Cerebellum

The cerebellum, also known as the little brain, is the brain region concerned with motor control. The main functions of the cerebellum, which are movement-related, are extremely important for the proper functioning of the human body. The cerebellum also has some cognitive functions, such as language and attention. Therefore, the cerebellum is of vital importance for coordination, precision and accurate timing. The cerebellum is organized into three main parts: the cerebro cerebellum, the vestibulo cerebellum, and the spinocerebellum. The cerebrocerebellum is the largest subdivision of the cerebellum, as it occupies most of the lateral cerebellar hemisphere. The cerebrocerebellum has the role of regulating highly skilled movements, so it plans and executes complex spatial and temporal movement sequences.

The vestibulocerebellum is the oldest part of the cerebellum from a phylogenetical point of view and it deals with comprising the caudal loves of the cerebellum. The vestibulocerebellum includes the flocculus and the nodulus. The role of this cerebellum section is to regulate movements regarding posture and equilibrium after receiving input from the vestibular nuclei in the brainstem. The spinocerebellum is the cerebellum part which is located in its median and paramedian zone. This is the only section to receive input directly from the spinal cord, being of major importance for movements of distal muscles. From another organizational perspective, the cerebellum can also be divided into two lateral hemispheres. These hemispheres are connected by a medial part, which is the vermis.

Every hemisphere contains a central core of white matter and a surface of gray matter. Also, each cerebellum hemisphere is further divided into three lobes: the flocculonodular love, the anterior lobe, and the posterior lobe. The flocculonodular lobe is the one to receive sensory input from the ear vestibules. The anterior lobe is the one to receive sensory input from the spinal cord. The posterior lobe is the one to receive sensory input from the cerebrum. These impulses are located in the cerebellar cortex. As you can see, the cerebellum works on a very simple mechanism, but it can cause severe disorders is neuromuscular disturbances occur.